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Plagiarism Tutorial: How do you incorporate sources?

Two Ways to Incorporate Sources

Quotes used from sources are word-for-word copies of the author(s)' original work. When you quote, regardless of citation style, always make sure of the following: 

  1. The quoted words are in "quotation marks."
  2. Edit quotations with caution. Sometimes it's necessary to change a word within the quotation. When you do this, put the changed word in [brackets].
  3. Do not overly rely on direct quotes in your paper. Your readers want to hear your voice. So do the work to paraphrase or summarize rather than directly quoting extensively throughout the paper. Instead, quote when it is necessary to communicate exactly what the author is saying. Quotes should be used to support your ideas, not replace them.
  4. Think carefully about the quotes you are using. Where are they coming from? Reliable, peer-reviewed sources or something else? When possible, quote from experts. 
  5. Use signal phrases to introduce quotes rather than "quote dropping." (signal phrases are in bold below. This example is in APA).
    Example of quote dropping:
    Klipfel’s (2014) study on authentic engagement through students’ selection of topics of personal interest, demonstrates this “self” component of information literacy by exploring the relationship between student motivation and authentic engagement in research practices. “Being engaged in research that aligns with one’s core authentic self significantly increased the meaningfulness of the research experience for students” (p. 237).

    Example of a signal phrase:
    Klipfel’s (2014) study on authentic engagement through students’ selection of topics of personal interest, demonstrates this “self” component of information literacy by exploring the relationship between student motivation and authentic engagement in research practices. For Klipfel (2014), it was clear that “being engaged in research that aligns with one’s core authentic self significantly increased the meaningfulness of the research experience for students” (p. 237).

What this video from Scribbr for tips on how to quote:

[Scribbr]. (2019, Oct 31). Scribbr - How to quote in under 5 minutes. [Video file]. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/DhMl3eIcGbI

Paraphrasing is the restatement of the ideas of an author in your own words. Your paper should have a balance of quotes and paraphrasing. Remember this is where note-taking will be the most important! Refer back to your source notes as you paraphrase so you remember what your words are and what are others.

The following tips on paraphrasing come from the Columbia College Library's Plagiarism Tutorial:

When you paraphrase, you must:

  • Change both the sentence structure and the words used.
  • Accurately express the original author's ideas.

Paraphrasing tips:

  • First read the original passage a few times to make sure you understand what the author is saying. 
  • Write down the author's main points in point form. 
  • When writing your paraphrase, don't look at the source you are paraphrasing. Use your notes of the author's main points and write sentences that present those ideas in different ways. 
  • Avoid switching out words with synonyms. This will create sentences that sound odd!
  • When taking notes, try to paraphrase important passages immediately, rather than writing down direct quotes. This can lead to unintentional plagiarism.

Watch this video from Scribbr to learn some steps on how to paraphrase:

[Scribbr]. (2019, Oct 31). Scribbr - How to paraphrase in 5 easy steps. [Video file]. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/oiM0x0ApVL8