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HIS 216: History of Ancient Rome: Citing Sources

Chicago Manual of Style Online

CMS Citation Resources

Citing Artifacts & Archaeological Sites

Chicago Manual of Style Notes & Bibliography Style

Paintings, Photographs & Sculpture

Information about paintings, photographs, sculptures, or other works of art can usually be presented in the text rather than in a note or bibliography. If a note or bibliography entry is needed, list the artist, a title (in italics), and a date of creation or completion, followed by information about the medium and the location of the work. For works consulted online, add a URL.

1. Salvador Dalí, The Persistence of Memory, 1931, oil on canvas, 9½ × 13″ (24.1 × 33 cm), Museum of Modern Art, New York,

2. Dorothea Lange, Black Maria, Oakland, 1957, printed 1965, gelatin silver print, 39.3 × 37 cm, Art Institute, Chicago,

  • McCurry, Steve. Afghan Girl. December 1984. Photograph. National Geographic, cover, June 1985.
  • Picasso, Pablo. Bull’s Head. Spring 1942. Bicycle saddle and handlebars, 33.5 × 43.5 × 19 cm. Musée Picasso Paris.


Information about maps can usually be presented in the text rather than in a note or bibliography. If a note or bibliography entry is needed, list the cartographer (if known) and the title of the map (in italics) or a description (in roman), followed by the scale and size (if known) and publication details or location of the map (see also 8.19914.235). Undated maps consulted online should include an access or revision date (see also 14.1214.13).

1. Samuel de Champlain, cartographer, Carte geographique de la Nouvelle Franse, 1612, 43 × 76 cm, in The History of Cartography, vol. 3, Cartography in the European Renaissance (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2007), fig. 51.3.

2. Yu ji tu [Map of the tracks of Yu], AD 1136, Forest of Stone Steles Museum, Xi’an, China, stone rubbing, 1933?, 84 × 82 cm, Library of Congress,

3. Satellite view of Chicago, Google Earth, accessed April 2, 2016,,-87.723154,93759m/data=!3m1!1e3.


Chicago Manual of Style

The Chicago Manual of Style (CMOS) citation style is most commonly used in humanities disciplines such as history and the arts.

The examples below are for the Notes and Bibliography (NB) style.

Sample Chicago Citations
  In-Text Note Bibliography
Journal Article Yodovich, “Defining Conditional Belonging.”

Yodovich, Neta. “Defining Conditional Belonging: The Case of Female Science Fiction Fans.” Sociology 55, no. 5 (October 2021): 871–87.

Journal Article with Multiple Authors Fulkerson, Neumark-Sztainer, and Story, “Adolescent and Parent Views of Family Meals.”

Fulkerson, Jayne A., Dianne Neumark-Sztainer, and Mary Story. “Adolescent and Parent Views of Family Meals.” Journal of the American Dietetic Association 106, no. 4 (April 1, 2006): 526–32.

Book Golding, Star Wars after Lucas.

Golding, Dan. Star Wars after Lucas: A Critical Guide to the Future of the Galaxy. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2019.

AI Text generated by ChatGPT, OpenAI, March 7, 2023, N/A

Always check with your professor and syllabus for specific information on how you should use and cite AI-generated sources.

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