Skip to Main Content
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.

KIN 371: Medical Missions in the Developing World: Citing Sources

Books on Citation Formats

Common Citation Formats

The American Psychology Association (APA) citation style is most commonly used in disciplines such as social sciences, business, nursing, and education.  

Example citations and paper used in the above Guide are original, but Diana Hacker's A Writer's Reference as well as Purdue OWL were used as a reference in the creation of this Guide. Some examples may have come from those works, below is the MLA Citation for those sources:

Hacker, D., & Sommers, N. (2018). A writer's reference. Boston, MA: Bedford/St. Martin's.

Purdue Onlnine Writing Lab (n.d.). APA style. Retrieved from https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/research_and_citation/apa_style/apa_style_introduction.html 

Website Citations

Citing websites is probably one of the hardest resource types to cite properly.  Often this is because it is hard to find the necessary information that must be included in a citation from an organizations website.  Below are the basic components of a Reference list entry for a website and information about where you can usually find each section on a website.

As a general rule, if you cannot find a piece of information, such as a date, leave that information blank.  Do not make something up! In the case where you cannot identify the author of a website use the organization as the author.  For most of the websites you will be accessing the organization (e.g. World Health Organization) will be the author and your Reference list citation entry will begin with that.

Components of a Website Citation

  • Author 
    For most of the websites you will be interacting with the organization will be the author.
  • Dates
    A copyright date is usually contained at the bottom of a website.  When a specific publish date for an online webpage is known, use that.  Otherwise if you cannot find a date use the abbreviation n.d. to represent no date was found. 
  • Title of Section
    The specific title of the page you are viewing.  For example on the CIA World Factbook website, the title of the page will most likely be your country's name. 
  • Website title
    The overall website's title.  This will most likely be the organization's name. 
  • Website URL 
    The specific URL of the page you consulted.  Begin this section of the citation with Retrieved from followed by the URL.

EXAMPLE

Central Intelligence Agency. (2016). Belize. In the World Factbook. Retrieved from  https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/bh.html

Image Citation

The basic format for siting images is as follows: 

Author [Role of Author]. (Year image was created). Title of work [Type of work], Retrieved from URL (address of website)

It's likely you will not be able to find all this information for web images.  Try to find as much as you can, but if you cannot locate the information follow the formats below.

Electronic Image (No Author)

Title of work [Type of work]. (Year image was created). Retrieved from URL (address of website) 

Electronic Image (No Author, No Title, No Date) 

[Format and subject of work]. Retrieved from URL (address of website)

Figures

The Purdue OWL site has great information on integrating and citing figures within a paper.  Use their information to learn how to proper format and number figures within a paper.  

General Format for Caption under Figure
          Figure X. Descriptive phrase that serves as title and description. Reprinted [or adapted]
     from Title of Website, by Author First Initial. Second Initial. Surname, Year, Retrieved
     from URL. Copyright [year] by the Name of Copyright Holder. Reprinted [or adapted]
     with permission.