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HIS 341: Eastern Europe, Byzantium, and the Caucasus: Primary Sources

Art & Architecture

Byzantine Seals by Dumbarton Oaks

Primary Source Documents

Psalter and New Testament


Eastern Europe


Saints & Icons

The Presentation in the Temple

What are Primary Sources?

Primary sources can be a variety of materials in different mediums.  The key to identifying primary source materials is determining if this source originates or was created during the time under study.  Sources were present during the event or time period and offer a first-hand perspective on the historical event or time period under study.  Examples of primary source documents include:

  • Artifacts
  • Images/Visual Art
  • Maps
  • Music
  • Official Documents
  • Documents written during the time under study
  • Personal Accounts
  • Travel Narratives